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وقفة مع بعض_المصطلحات

كتب : شيخ أحمد جينغ

تعود علينا بعض المناسبات الدينية الموسمية غير الشرعية – أو التي في مشروعيتها خلاف – بكثير من النقاش، والجدل والقيل والقال، ومن خلال تتبعي للنقاشات الدائرة هذه الأيام
حول قضية المولد وقفت على أمر اعتبرته خللا يقع في الخلط في توظيف المصطلحات، وتحديدا مصطلح (العيد)، ومصطلح (الاحتفال).
العيد:
أما مصطلح (العيد): فهو اسم للمناسبات الدورية، التي تعود مع السنة، أو الشهر، أو الأسبوع.
يقول الخطيبُ الشربينيُّ في مغني المحتاج(310/1): ” العيد مشتقٌّ من العوْد؛ لتكرُّره كلَّ عام، وقيل: لكثرة عوائد الله تعالى فيه على عباده، وقيل: لعوْد السرور بعوْده”.
والأعياد في الإسلام من الأمور التوقيفية التي لا يقدم على واحد منها إلا بدليل شرعي معتبر؛ لما ثبت من حديث أَنَسٍ رضي الله عنه قَالَ: قَدِمَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ الْمَدِينَةَ، وَلَهُمْ يَوْمَانِ يَلْعَبُونَ فِيهِمَا، فَقَالَ: مَا هَذَانِ الْيَوْمَانِ ؟، قَالُوا: كُنَّا نَلْعَبُ فِيهِمَا فِي الْجَاهِلِيَّةِ, فَقَالَ رَسُولُ: اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ:(إِنَّ اللَّهَ قَدْ أَبْدَلَكُمْ بِهِمَا خَيْرًا مِنْهُمَا: يَوْمَ الْأَضْحَى, وَيَوْمَ الْفِطْرِ). سنن أبي داود، برقم(1134).
ولحصر الأعياد الإسلامية نعير سمعنا للإمام ابنُ حزم، فهو يقول في كتابه المحلى(81/5): ” صلاة العيدين: هما عيد الفِطر من رمضان”, “ويوم الأضحى”, ” ليس للمسلمين عيد غيرهما, إلَّا يوم الجمعة, وثلاثة أيام بعد يوم الأضحى; لأنَّ الله تعالى لم يجعل لهم عيدًا غير ما ذَكرْنا, ولا رسوله صلَّى اللهُ عليه وسلَّم، ولا خلافَ بين أهل الإسلام في ذلك “.
االاحتفال:
يعد مصطلح (الاحتفال) من أكثر المصطلحات دورانا على الألسنة؛ لأنه يقترن عادة مع مصطلح (العيد)، فتقول: الاحتفال بعيد الأضحى المبارك، أو غيره من الأعياد الإسلامية.
والاحتفال مصطلح لم يرد به نصوص الشرع، وكثيرا ما نقع في الخلط في تعاملنا معه، بإعطائه تفسيرا ومدلولا شرعيا من حيث، أو نجعله مرادفا لكلمة(العيد), والواقع أنه في اللغة على معنى الاهتمام بالشيء ، فمقولة القائل: أحتفل بعيد الفطر المبارك ، معناه: اهتم به، كما تقول: فلان حفل بالضيف، أي اهتم به.
ثم إن الاحتفال بالشيء قد يكون موافقا للشرع، وقد يخالفه، فالمحتفل المهتم بأحد الأعياد الإسلامية بالطريقة والكيفية المأمور بها شرعا هو موافق للشريعة الإسلامية، ويتناقض معها بطروء أي خلل في هذا التطابق الذي يفترض أن يكون.
وهذا يقودني للقفز لتفنيد منشور رأيته لأحد الأصدقاء الأعزاء على الفيسبوك، وهو يلمز ببعض الدعاة الذين يولون لمناسبة المولد النبوي الشريف اهتماما في خطبهم، ودروسهم، ومحاضراتهم، فيغتنمون الحدث التاريخي فرصة لمدارسة موضوعات في سيرته العطرة عليه الصلاة والسلام، والتعريف بشمائله، حيث اعتبر ذلك نوعا من الاحتفال بالمولد النبوي الشريف، وهذا صحيح إذا كان يريد بالاحتفال المعنى اللغوي الذي هو الاهتمام به كحدث تاريخي، بعيدا عن التعامل معه على أساس العيدية التي تفتقر إلى دليل، وما الذي يمنع من ذلك، ويجيز ما تقوم به الدول والحكومات من عقد حفالات واحتفالات باليوم الوطني ؟، وما نقوم به نحن الدعاة والأكاديميون والمربون في جامعاتنا، وكلياتنا، ومدارسنا، ودور تحفيظ القران الكريم من إقامة حفلات لتخريج الدفعات، فنجتمع له، ونخصص له يوما في سنة بشكل اعتباطي، ومع ذلك لا أحد يقول بأن هذه الحفالات بدعة؛ لأنها لا علاقة لها بالعبادة والتدين.
واعتقد أننا بهذا التحرير والفرز بين المصطلحات، والفقه الدقيق لمضامينها، والإسقاط السليم لها، نخرج من هذا الخلط في المفاهيم، والإطلاقات غير العلمية، والله ولي التوفيق .

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